00:00    |    
Initial credits 
00:06    |    
Introduction by João Carlos Espada
01:15    |    
Organization of ideas 
Why did the liberal democracy in Europe collapse?
Why did the second world war occurred?
11:46    |    
Who was the main opponent of nazis? 
Ideas play a crucial role in politics and history 
Quote, The road to serfdom, Friedrich Hayek (1944) 
Capitalism and socialism during the second world war 
Change in the perception of power in society 
24:22    |    
The National System of Political Economy, Friedrich List (1885) 
The school of Adam Smith
26:57    |    
Private and national economy 
Differences with communism 
Exhibit of the ignorance of national interests 
34:35    |    
Ideas from Adam Smith
Ideal of free trade
Limited government 
Decentralised decision making
40:29    |    
Protection of national industries 
Protected trade
System of individual economy
What was the main impact after writing this book?
How do world leaders react to these ideas? 
What circumstances and theories influenced the writer? 
55:53    |    
Communist Manifesto, Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx (1848) 
Scientific socialism 
Iron laws of history 
01:00:17    |    
Modes of economic production 
Primitive communism 
Moral point of view
01:07:02    |    
Class struggle 
The bourgeoisie 
The proletariat 
The lower middle class
Open civil war 
Abolish of the class struggle 
Marx and principles of freedom 
A scientific critique to Adam Smith's ideas
Peasants and proletarians
The real question: a sense of history 
01:29:18    |    
Popper's critique to Marx 
Absence of the moral dimension 
Example of Ukrainian peasants 
01:34:26    |    
Carl Schmitt
19th century conventionalism 
Main features of the 19th century 
Main changes of the 20th century  
Society was taking control of the state 
Political parties organized civil life  
Total state 
A single will 
Final conclusions 
01:56:37    |    
Finals credits 




Main Debates in 20th Century Political Thought (Session 1)

11 de enero de 2016   | Vistas: 11 |  

In the first session of the seminar "Main Debates in 20th Century Political Thought", professor João Espada presented two main questions: Why did the liberal democracy in Europe collapse? Why did the second world war occurred? He began explaining that before the first world war, the liberal democracy was the normal political regime but then this regimen collapsed. During the second world war some people often thought that Hitler represented capitalist against the socialism of the Soviet Union. Since that time, people has been thinking about the power structure in society and the role of government.

During this session, João Espada explores four authors' views related to free trade, limited government, decentralised decision making, private property and market economy. He analyses the ideas of Friedrich List, who based his writings in the school of Adam Smith and wrote about protected trade, individual economy and public economy. Then he analyses the Communist Manifesto, written by Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx, and explains some topics related to the scientific socialism like iron laws of history, modes of economic production, the bourgeoisie and the class struggle. He mentions Popper's critique to Marx, related to the absence of the moral dimension in his theory. Finally he analyses the ideas proposed by Carl Schmitt related to political parties and a total state.

Professor of political studies and director of the Institute for Political Studies at the Catholic University of Portugal; former adviser…


Nuestra misión es la enseñanza y difusión de los principios éticos, jurídicos y económicos de una sociedad de personas libres y responsables.

Universidad Francisco Marroquín